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The book summarizes the achievements of modern organizational psychology , traced the history of its development as an academic discipline, considered a variety of examples of how organizational and psychological problems in real organizations. Substantiates the new approach that the psychological problems of the organization are considered in the context of the organizational power - basic organizational processes that sustain the overall priority of the organization's goals over individual goals of employees. The book is recommended for students in higher education institutions , students of business schools , as well as college students . Management practitioners , specialists in consulting , recruitment and organizational development will find in this book recommendations, and answers many of the questions with which they face in their work. The book will be of interest to the widest range of readers.

... The fact that we are primarily interested in the practical and psychological terms - is the direction in which a person should be . I know ... If the goal of man , then about know what will happen ... Any psychic phenomenon ... can be comprehended and understood only as a path to a goal .

INTRODUCTION The crisis in which Russia was on the verge of the third millennium , struck most of the organizational systems of the country. Among them were effective even those organizations that previously have been the subject of national pride. The scope and destructiveness of the crisis came as a surprise not only for the thousands of plants, factories , schools , hospitals , mines and military units , but also for researchers in organizational problems .

For psychology specifics of the situation is that in the years of perestroika gap between words and deeds , between organizational goals and personal interests of managers at all levels has become so large, and the socio- economic contradictions so acute that only the analysis of internal psychological reasons may clarify the logic of the situation. However, organizational psychology - the science is inherently designed to explore the outer and inner contradictions in the behavior of people and provide a solution to the entire set of psychological problems in the organization, faced serious difficulties in explaining and exploring the devastating virus that hit all the organizational structure of the country . What happened to the Russian organizations for the restructuring and why everything before encouraging, and it seemed reasonable , the herd so bleak , confusing and not susceptible to psychological analysis ?

In the history of the now Soviet Union activities of each organization is rigidly determined by state planning figures . The entire economy of the country has been likened to a giant squadron floating on the set course and are guided by the light signals from the flagship . In such circumstances, the work of psychologists was reduced to solving everyday problems " naval service " ( work motivation , the rational organization of workplaces , working groups , psychological climate , etc.). The question : " Where and why the ship sails ? " - Did not arise even from the captain of the ship.

With the collapse of the Soviet Union to Russian "organizational ships," a lot has changed . Having lost the flagship state planning , the mighty fleet was dispersed in a stormy sea of "transition ." Suddenly, it became clear that the traditional view of the organization as a " consciously coordinated social education with defined borders , functioning on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal," do not open the main thing - the contradictory nature of the organization. It was found that organizational unity - just an illusion , and if the organization is left to itself , not only its effectiveness, but even its very existence threatened by the numerous contradictions that may appear on the surface in the most unexpected and grotesque . And then there are the incredible events : disappears fired plant products are sold for a pittance of a giant company shares , the company rushes " on the run " , and the workers do not receive wages for years ... Given these glaring contradictions solutions to problems that have traditionally engaged in organizational psychology , looks seriously ill outpatient treatment .

In this context, a particularly acute problem is to find new approaches that would enhance the ability of psychology to analyze and solve real organizational problems. In our view, this opens the possibility of our proposed approach , in which the organization is seen primarily as a contradictory process of interaction between people with different and sometimes opposing goals , interests, needs and views. Psychologically, this contradiction appears in the form of two opposite trends: the centripetal and centrifugal . First - pushes the individual to an organization for cooperation and seek common goals and interests. In line with this trend, the organization advocates for the individual instrument to meet its needs: working in it and following its objectives, it is not only a means of livelihood, but also to the well-being and development. The second trend is forcing the individual to avoid institutional pressures and the need to subordinate their individual goals and actions of the organization's requirements and the inability to follow only their own desires and plans inevitably engender in him a feeling of protest and reluctance to collaborate with other people.

This is a dialectical contradiction inherent in any organization and always threatens its integrity. Exist as a single organism , it can only be the case if the centripetal force will clearly and consistently dominate centrifugal if the desire for integration will prevail over the desire to disintegration. However, the dynamics of the human psyche and its variability in the emotions , needs and motivations can not hope for a spontaneous emergence of sustained commitment to cooperation. What can secure victory over the disintegration of integration , cooperation over individualism ?

Most of the theories and concepts of joint activities converge in the fact that the first and indispensable condition for the existence of any organization is the formation of sheathe purpose. Indeed , the notion of common purpose in the psychological analysis is difficult to overestimate. Presented in the form of a statement , in which more or less explicitly reflected some desirable results for the organization , the purpose is a key factor in determining the behavior of its members .

Whence there is a common goal ? Whose head is formed or, in other words, who is its subject ? The notion that the overall goal is a reflection of a common consciousness and expresses a reasonable course of action for all , although it looks very attractive and democratic, can be perceived only as a metaphor , which is unlikely to carrying forward our knowledge about the actual psychological mechanisms of functioning of the organization. If each person who is convinced of the correctness of their individual goals, will promote it as a common goal, "cart " will never have budge. Someone even the most attractive individual goal by itself is unlikely to be meaningful for other people , and even more to get them to follow him .

There will always be indifferent , skeptics , critics , lazy , and even the staunchest opponents of the most brilliant plans. In order for an organization formed in a whole organism , individual target one or more persons to gain an advantage over other goals , ie this particular individual ( group) has become the subject of a common goal of the organization.

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